GRUB + RAID howto

FROM: http://www.linuxsa.org.au/mailing-list/2003-07/1270.html
thanks to: Michael Martucci.

 In the Software RAID howto it is mentioned that it is not known how to set up GRUB to boot off RAID. Here is how I did it: **Follow at your own risk. If you break something it's your fault.** ================================================================== Configuration:  - /dev/hda (Pri. Master) 60 GB Seagate HDD (blank)  - /dev/hdc (Sec. Master) 60 GB Seagate HDD (blank)  - /dev/hdd (Sec. Slave) CDROM Drive   Setup Goals:  - /boot as /dev/md0: RAID1 of /dev/hda1 & /dev/hdc1 for redundancy  - /     as /dev/md1: RAID1 of /dev/hda2 & /dev/hdc2 for redundancy  - swap*2 with equal priority: /dev/hda3 & /dev/hdc3 for more speed  - GRUB installed in boot records of /dev/hda and /dev/hdc so either     drive can fail but system still boot.  Tools:  - mdadm (http://www.cse.unsw.edu.au/~neilb/source/mdadm/)    (I used 1.2.0, but notice that as of 20030729 1.3.0 is available)  1. Boot up off rescue/installation CD/disk/HDD/whatever with mdadm tools installed.  2. Partitioning of hard drives: (I won't show you how to do this. See: # man fdisk ; man sfdisk ) But here's how stuff was arranged: ------------------------------------------------------------------ # sfdisk -l /dev/hda  Disk /dev/hda: 7297 cylinders, 255 heads, 63 sectors/track Units = cylinders of 8225280 bytes, blocks of 1024 bytes, counting from 0    Device Boot Start   End  #cyls   #blocks  Id System /dev/hda1  *      0+   16     17-   136521  fd Linux raid autodetect /dev/hda2        17  7219   7203  57858097+ fd Linux raid autodetect /dev/hda3      7220  7296     77    618502+ 82 Linux swap /dev/hda4         0     -      0         0   0 Empty ------------------------------------------------------------------ To make /dev/hdc the same: ------------------------------------------------------------------ # sfdisk -d /dev/hda | sfdisk /dev/hdc ------------------------------------------------------------------ /dev/hd[ac]1 for /dev/md0 for /boot /dev/hd[ac]2 for /dev/md1 for / /dev/hd[ac]3 for 2*swap It is important to make md-to-be partitions with ID 0xFD, not 0x83.  3. Set up md devices: (both are RAID1 [mirrors]) ------------------------------------------------------------------ # mdadm --create /dev/md0 --level=1 \     --raid-devices=2 /dev/hda1 /dev/hdc1 # mdadm --create /dev/md1 --level=1 \     --raid-devices=2 /dev/hda2 /dev/hdc2 ------------------------------------------------------------------  4. Make filesystems: ------------------------------------------------------------------ # mke2fs /dev/md0 # mkreiserfs /dev/md1 # mkswap /dev/hda3 # mkswap /dev/hdc3 ------------------------------------------------------------------  5. Install Your distribution:  Simply treat /dev/md0 and /dev/md1 as the partitions to install on, and install the way your normally do. Eg, for Gentoo: ------------------------------------------------------------------ # mkdir newinst # mount -t reiserfs /dev/md1 ./newinst # cd newinst # mkdir boot # mount -t ext2 /dev/md0 ./boot # tar -xvjpf ../stage1-x86-1.4_rc2.tbz2 # mount -o bind /proc ./proc # chroot ./ ... ------------------------------------------------------------------ Here're the relevant entries /etc/fstab for the newly created partitions: ------------------------------------------------------------------ /dev/md0      /boot        ext2       noauto,noatime          1 1 /dev/md1      /        reiserfs       noatime                 1 1 /dev/hda3     none         swap       sw,pri=1                0 0 /dev/hdc3     none         swap       sw,pri=1                0 0 ------------------------------------------------------------------ The "pri=1" for each of the swap partitions makes them the same priority so the kernel does striping and that speeds up vm. Of course, this means that if a disk dies then the system may crash, needing a reboot. Perhaps it would be wiser to make hd[ac]3 a RAID1 array too, and just use /dev/md2 as swap.  6. Setting up GRUB: (assuming you've already installed it) ------------------------------------------------------------------ # grub grub> root (hd0,0)  Filesystem type is ext2fs, partition type 0xfd  grub> setup (hd0)   Checking if "/boot/grub/stage1" exists... yes  Checking if "/boot/grub/stage2" exists... yes  Checking if "/boot/grub/e2fs_stage1_5" exists... yes  Running "embed /boot/grub/e2fs_stage1_5 (hd0)"...  16 sectors are embedded. succeeded  Running "install /boot/grub/stage1 (hd0) (hd0)1+16 p (hd0,0)/boot/grub/stage2 /boot/grub/grub.conf"... succeeded Done.  grub> root (hd1,0)  Filesystem type is ext2fs, partition type 0xfd  grub> setup (hd1)   Checking if "/boot/grub/stage1" exists... yes  Checking if "/boot/grub/stage2" exists... yes  Checking if "/boot/grub/e2fs_stage1_5" exists... yes  Running "embed /boot/grub/e2fs_stage1_5 (hd1)"...  16 sectors are embedded. succeeded  Running "install /boot/grub/stage1 (hd1) (hd1)1+16 p (hd1,0)/boot/grub/stage2 /boot/grub/grub.conf"... succeeded Done.  grub> quit ------------------------------------------------------------------ Here is how /boot/grub/grub.conf is: (/dev/md0 mounted as /boot) (Assuming kernel is installed as /boot/bzImage, and RAID1 support compiled into the kernel). ------------------------------------------------------------------ # Boot automatically after 30 secs. timeout 30  # By default, boot the first entry. default 0  # Fallback to the second entry. fallback 1  # For booting with disc 0 kernel title  GNU/Linux (hd0,0) kernel (hd0,0)/bzImage root=/dev/md1  # For booting with disc 1 kernel, if (hd0,0)/bzImage is unreadable title  GNU/Linux (hd1,0) kernel (hd1,0)/bzImage root=/dev/md1 ------------------------------------------------------------------  Now you should be able to reboot your system and play!

[Postfix] – warning: mail_queue_enter: create file maildrop Permission denied

Problema riscontrato nell'invio di posta tramite webamil:

[root@zion vhosts]# tail /var/log/maillog
Aug 23 15:48:15 zion postfix/postdrop[18637]: warning: mail_queue_enter:
create file maildrop/575635.18637: Permission denied
Aug 23 15:48:25 zion postfix/postdrop[18637]: warning: mail_queue_enter:
create file maildrop/576016.18637: Permission denied
Aug 23 15:48:32 zion postfix/postfix-script[18759]: warning: not owned
by group postdrop: /var/spool/postfix/public
Aug 23 15:48:32 zion postfix/postfix-script[18760]: warning: not owned
by group postdrop: /var/spool/postfix/maildrop
Aug 23 15:48:35 zion postfix/postdrop[18637]: warning: mail_queue_enter:
create file maildrop/576412.18637: Permission denied
Aug 23 15:48:45 zion postfix/postdrop[18637]: warning: mail_queue_enter:
create file maildrop/576891.18637: Permission denied
Aug 23 15:48:55 zion postfix/postdrop[18637]: warning: mail_queue_enter:
create file maildrop/577268.18637: Permission denied
Aug 23 15:49:05 zion postfix/postdrop[18637]: warning: mail_queue_enter:
create file maildrop/577665.18637: Permission denied
Aug 23 15:49:15 zion postfix/postdrop[18637]: warning: mail_queue_enter:
create file maildrop/578053.18637: Permission denied
Aug 23 15:49:25 zion postfix/postdrop[18637]: warning: mail_queue_enter:
create file maildrop/578454.18637: Permission denied

[root@zion vhosts]# postfix check
postfix/postfix-script: warning: not owned by group postdrop:
/var/spool/postfix/public
postfix/postfix-script: warning: not owned by group postdrop:
/var/spool/postfix/maildrop

SOLUZIONE:

/etc/init.d/Mailscanner stop
killall -9 postdrop

[root@zion vhosts]# chgrp -R postdrop /var/spool/postfix/public
[root@zion vhosts]# chgrp -R postdrop /var/spool/postfix/maildrop/
[root@zion vhosts]# postfix check
[root@zion vhosts]# /etc/init.d/Mailscanner start

Fedora 7 – Problema con haldaemon e kpowersave

Ad ogni avvio mi si presentava il problema di "congelamento" del pc per
vari minuti fino a che non falliva l'avvio del demone e tutto
proseguiva correttamente.
PEr questo problema, però, non funzionava neppure kpowersave.

Per risolvere il problema ho dovuto attivare all'avvio il demone
/etc/init.d/messagebus

Tutto si risolve con i seguenti comandi:
/etc/init.d/messagebus start
/etc/init.d/haldaemon start
kpowersave

Spero vi sia utile.
Salui
MaoX

[WIN] – Time server NTP – Sincronizzare l’ora

Ecco una serie di guide per la configurazione
dell'ora di windows dentro e fuori da un dominio

http://www.ien.it/ntp/howtosync_i.shtml
http://support.microsoft.com/kb/216734/it
http://www.microsoft.com/technet/prodtechnol/windowsserver2003/technologies/security/ws03mngd/26_s3wts.mspx
http://www.ntp-time-server.com/information/ntp/ntp-windows.html
http://www.galsys.co.uk/categories/ntp-windows-2003.htm
http://www.windowserver.it/Articoli/Soluzioni/SistemiOperativi/WindowsServer2003/ConfigurareilNTPviaGPO/tabid/106/Default.aspx
http://csg.trinhall.cam.ac.uk/tips/ntp/winxp

Fix microsoft a richiesta…

[da: http://www.windowserver.it/ ]]

Volete una patch? Inviate una mail al supporto Microsoft

Se volete ricevere una patch, di quelle che solitamente si richiedono telefonicamente, da oggi potrete anche usufruire del servizio messo in opera da Microsoft, ovvero un sito web dove effettuare la richeista. L’invio della patch avverrà in circa 8 ore lavorative. Potete accedere al sito cliccando sul seguente link:
https://support.microsoft.com/contactus2/emailcontact.aspx?scid=sw;en;1410&WS=hotfix